On Lake Biwa, sitting down at an inn for lunch:
Azaleas arranged in a pot,
Chopping cod in the shade –
tsutsuji ikete sono kage ni hidara saku onna
躑躅 生けてその陰に干 鱈 割く女
Was she young, was she pretty, or dried up and old? Did she blossom like a flower? Or merely exist?
One should be careful of reading too much into a haiku.
Matsuo Basho himself observed that a haiku may be neither objective or subjective. It merely is what it is. This quality of “thusness” or “suchness” is a principle of Buddhism called Tathātā. It represents the base reality. Thus, there in the corner of the inn, Basho spies an azalea, and a woman tearing up dried cod.
Imagery, Kigo, Kireji, and a Twist
The essence of a haiku is its imagery. The image conveys a message, the characters and words are merely the conveyance of the image.
Most haiku will contain a kigo word. This helps to set the season and so the setting of the poem. Kigo words do not need to be the actual season – spring, summer, fall or winter. Instead, as in this case, the azalea that blooms in spring becomes the kigo word.
Having created the image, the poet must carve his or her haiku up into a sequence of images to create the synthesis of images forming one idea. Kireji are called “cutting words” and act like punctuation, a comma, a dash, a question, and exclamation, and so forth. But kireji may also make their appearance in the verb form, for instance, in change the present to the past
In this haiku, the verb that appears after azalea is ikete, past tense of ikeru. By itself, the “Te Form” links the two thoughts of the azalea and the woman chopping cod together.
A good haiku should also try to create a twist in thought, where sound may suggest a shift in thought. Hidara saku, the cod is split by the woman, but shifting the phrase to saku onna, gives the listener impression of a woman blooming.